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S-Nitrosothiols or thionitrites with the general formula RSNO are formally composed of the nitrosyl cation (NO⁺) and a thiolate (RS⁻), the base of the corresponding acids RSH. The smallest S-nitrosothiol is HSNO and derives from hydrogen sulfide (HSH, H2S). The most common physiological S-nitrosothiols are derived from the amino acid L-cysteine (CysSH). Thus, the simplest S-nitrosothiol is S-nitroso-L-cysteine (CysSNO). CysSNO is a spontaneous potent donor of nitric oxide (NO) which activates soluble guanylyl cyclase to form cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). This activation is associated with multiple biological actions that include relaxation of smooth muscle cells and inhibition of platelet aggregation. Like NO, CysSNO is a short-lived species and occurs physiologically at concentrations around 1 nM in human blood. CysSNO can be formed from CysSH and higher oxides of NO including nitrous acid (HONO) and its anhydride (N2O3). N-Acetyl-L-cysteine ethyl ester
The most characteristic feature of RSNO is the S-transnitrosation reaction by which the NO⁺ group is reversibly transferred to another thiolate. By this way numerous RSNO can be formed such as the low-molecular-mass S-nitroso-N-acetyl-L-cysteine (SNAC) and S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO), and the high-molecular-mass S-nitrosol-L-cysteine hemoglobin (HbCysSNO) present in erythrocytes and S-nitrosol-L-cysteine albumin (AlbCysSNO) present in plasma at concentrations of the order of 200 nM. All above mentioned RSNO exert NO-related biological activity, but they must be administered intravenously.
This important drawback can be overcome by lipophilic charge-free RSNO. Thus, we prepared the ethyl ester of SNAC, the S-nitroso-N-acetyl-L-cysteine ethyl ester (SNACET), from synthetic N-acetyl-L-cysteine ethyl ester (NACET). Both NACET and SNACET have improved pharmacological features over N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-L-cysteine (SNAC), respectively, including higher oral bioavailability. SNACET exerts NO-related activities which can be utilized in the urogenital tract and in the cardiovascular system. NACET has high oral bioavailability, is a strong antioxidant and abundant precursor of GSH, unlike its free acid N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Here, we review the chemical and pharmacological properties of SNACET and NACET as well as their analytical chemistry. We also report new results from the ingestion of S-[¹⁵N]nitroso-N-acetyl-L-cysteine ethyl ester (S¹⁵NACET) demonstrating the favorable pharmacological profile of SNACET.

Palmitoylethanolamide is a natural pain killer ingredient in the fatty acid amide category and synthesized within your own body, we call it endogenous. It is widely used in sports nutrition supplements and joint health formulas worldwide, especially in the United States, Australia, UK, Canada and EU countries like the Netherlands, Belgium, and Italy.

Palmitoylethanolamide is a pretty long word, if it is your first time to come across it, you may wonder how to memorize or pronounce it. Well, palmitoylethanolamide is a word consists of three words:Palmitoylethanolamide powder

In our daily life, PEA (the first letter of each of the three words) is to refer to palmitoylethanolamide for short. However, PEA itself is a plant, and PEA protein is also applied in bodybuilding supplements as a vegetarian source of protein content. Don’t get them wrong.

PEA has been demonstrated to bind to a receptor in the cell-nucleus (a nuclear receptor) and exerts a great variety of biological functions related to chronic pain and inflammation.
The IUPAC name of PEA is N-(2-Hydroxyethyl) hexadecanamide. Raw Palmitoylethanolamide is usually in the powder form, with molecule formula and weight as C18H37NO2 and 299.49 respectively. 544-31-0 is Palmitoylethanolamide’s CAS Registry Number and unique chemical identity.

Palmitoylethanolamide is practically insoluble in water and poorly soluble in most other aqueous solvents. Therefore, you may find that almost 99% fished dosage formulations of palmitoylethanolamide are in capsules or soft gels.

Palmitoylethanolamide VS Phenylethylamine
In fact, they are two completely different ingredients. No relationship is between them. Phenylethylamine or Phenylethylamine HCl is most known as a mood and weight loss ingredient in many sports nutrition. While Palmitoylethanolamide is popularly known as a painkiller. The connection is that both compounds are abbreviated as PEA, and called by PEA powder. So don’t get them wrong.

Palmitoylethanolamide vs anandamide
Many of our clients who buy bulk Palmitoylethanolamide powder are also interested in Bulk anandamide powder and anandamide oil from us. Therefore, what’s the relation between them?Both palmitoylethanolamide and anandamide are endogenous fatty acid amide in our human bodies.

According to Wikipedia, PEA and related compounds such as anandamide seem to have synergistic effects in models of pain and analgesia.Gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry measurements indicate that the levels of anandamide and PEA in the skin are enough to cause a tonic activation of local cannabinoid receptors.

In one study, the data shows that anandamide and PEA activate pharmacologically distinct receptors and that these two substances can be produced simultaneously in tissues. When injected together in equal amounts, anandamide and PEA inhibited the early phase of formalin-evoked pain behavior with a potency that was approximately 100-fold greater than each of the compounds separately (Fig. 3a). A similar synergistic potentiation occurred in the late phase, on which anandamide had no effect when given alone (Figs 1a and 3b). Earlier administration of either CB1 or CB2 antagonists entirely blocked the response.

Axon regeneration after injury in the central nervous system is hampered in part because if an age-dependent decline in the intrinsic axon growth potential, and one of the strategies to stimulate axon growth in injured neurons involves pharmacological manipulation of implicated signaling pathways. Compound 7P
As report from Journal of medicinal chemistry shows compound 7p which promotes neurite outgrowth of cultured primary neurons derived from the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and retina. in an animal model of optic nerve injury, compound 7p was shown to induce growth of gap-43 positive axons, indicating that the in vitro neurite outgrowth activity of compound 7p translates into stimulation of axon regeneration in vivo. further optimization of compound 7p and elucidation of the mechanisms by which it elicits axon regeneration in vivo will provide a rational basis for future efforts to enhance treatment strategies.

Compound 7P basic information:

Name: Compound 7P
CAS No.:1890208-58-8
Chemical name:
2-(N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-methylphenylsulfonamido)-N-(4-methoxypyridin-3-yl)acetamide
2-[(2-Methoxyphenyl)[4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]amino]-N-(4-methoxy-3-pyridinyl)acetamide
Molecular Formula: C22H23N3O5S
Molecular Weight: 441.508
Chemical Structure:

Raw Compound 7P powder which promotes neurite outgrowth of cultured primary neurons derived from the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and retina. in an animal model of optic nerve injury, Raw Compound 7P powder was shown to induce growth of gap-43 positive axons, indicating that the in vitro neurite outgrowth activity of Raw Compound 7P powder translates into stimulation of axon regeneration in vivo.Compound 7P powder

Raw Compound 7P powder which promotes neurite outgrowth of cultured primary neurons derived from the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and retina.

In an animal model of optic nerve injury, Raw Compound 7P was shown to induce growth of gap-43 positive axons, indicating that the in vitro neurite outgrowth activity of Raw Compound 7P translates into stimulation of axon regeneration in vivo.
Compound 7p was developed as one in series of compounds with the aim of identifying dual-acting thromboxane receptor antagonist/synthase inhibitors .

In fact compound 7p shows selectivity for prostaglandin I2 synthase (PTGIS , CYP8A1) over thromboxane synthase (CYP5A1) .
Raw Compound 7P (2-[(2-methoxyphenyl)[(4-methyl phenyl) sulfonyl] amino]-N-(4-methoxy-3-pyridinyl) acetamide) powder which promotes neurite outgrowth of cultured primary neurons derived from the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and retina. in an animal model of optic nerve injury, Raw Compound 7P powder was shown to induce growth of gap-43 positive axons, indicating that the in vitro neurite outgrowth activity of Raw Compound 7P powder translates into stimulation of axon regeneration in vivo.further optimization of Raw Compound 7P powder and elucidation of the mechanisms by which it elicits axon regeneration in vivo will provide a rational basis for future efforts to enhance treatment strategies.

Compound 7p (2-[(2-methoxyphenyl)[(4-methyl phenyl) sulfonyl] amino]-N-(4-methoxy-3-pyridinyl) acetamide) showed the highest activity against cervical cancer cells. In a nude mouse xenograft model inoculated with HeLa cells, 7p showed dose-dependent inhibition of cervical tumour growth. Histopathological examination of excised tumour-bearing tissues showed that 7p improved the microstructure in a dose-dependent manner. Compound 7p also increased the proportions of HeLa cells in G0/G1 and S-phase and significantly decreased that of G2/M-phase. The effects of 7p on C-caspase-3, C-caspase-9, Bcl-2 and Bax expression in HeLa cells were also determined.

This was the first ever study to give this novel compound to humans over a period of time,” said study senior author Professor Doug Seals, from the University of Colorado Boulder.

“We found that it is well tolerated and appears to activate some of the same key biological pathways that calorie restriction does.”For the study, the researchers included 24 lean and healthy men and women ages 55 to 79 from the Boulder area.Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride

Half were given a placebo for six weeks, then took a 500 mg twice-daily dose of NR chloride. The other half took NR for the first six weeks, followed by placebo.The team took blood samples and other physiological measurements at the end of each treatment period. Participants reported no serious adverse effects.The authors found that 1,000 mg daily of NR boosted levels of another compound called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) by 60%.

NAD+ is required for activation of enzymes called sirtuins, which are largely credited with the beneficial effects of calorie restriction. It’s involved in a host of metabolic actions throughout the body, but it tends to decline with age.

“The idea is that by supplementing older adults with NR, we are not only restoring something that is lost with aging (NAD+), but we could potentially be ramping up the activity of enzymes responsible for helping protect our bodies from stress,” said first author Dr. Christopher Martens, also from the University of Colorado Boulder.

The scientists also found that in 13 participants with elevated blood pressure or stage 1 hypertension (120-139/80-89 mmHg), systolic blood pressure was about 10 points lower after supplementation. A drop of that magnitude could translate to a 25-% reduction in heart attack risk.

“If this magnitude of systolic blood pressure reduction with NR supplementation is confirmed in a larger clinical trial, such an effect could have broad biomedical implications,” they said.“Ultimately, such caloric restriction-mimicking compounds could provide an additional option — alongside the dietary changes and exercise currently recommended — for people whose blood pressure is not yet high enough to warrant medication but who are still at risk for a heart attack.”

“The study was small and ‘pilot in nature.’ We are not able to make any definitive claims that this compound is safe or going to be effective for specific segments of the population,” Dr. Martens said.

Researchers have indicated that when people consume a natural dietary supplement called nicotinamide riboside (NR) daily, it mimics caloric restriction (CR), kick-starting the same key chemical pathways responsible for its health benefits.Supplementation also tends to improve blood pressure and arterial health, particularly in those with mild hypertension, the study found.Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride powder

“This was the first ever study to give this novel compound to humans over a period of time,” said senior author Doug Seals, a Professor and researcher in the Department of Integrative Physiology at the University of Colorado Boulder. “We found that it is well tolerated and appears to activate some of the same key biological pathways that calorie restriction does.”Dr Seal and lead author Chris Martens included 24 lean and healthy men and women ages 55 to 79 from the Boulder area.Half were given a placebo for six weeks, then took a 500 mg twice-daily dose of nicotinamide riboside (NR) chloride (NIAGEN). The other half took NR for the first six weeks, followed by placebo.The researchers took blood samples and other physiological measurements at the end of each treatment period. Participants reported no serious adverse effects.

The researchers found that 1,000 mg daily of NR boosted levels of another compound called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) by 60 percent. NAD+ is required for activation of enzymes called sirtuins, which are largely credited with the beneficial effects of calorie restriction. It’s involved in a host of metabolic actions throughout the body, but it tends to decline with age.

Research suggests that as an evolutionary survival mechanism, the body conserves NAD+ when subjected to calorie restriction. But only recently have scientists begun to explore the idea of supplementing with so-called “NAD+-precursors” like NR to promote healthy ageing.“The idea is that by supplementing older adults with NR, we are not only restoring something that is lost with ageing (NAD+), but we could potentially be ramping up the activity of enzymes responsible for helping protect our bodies from stress,” Martens said.

The new study also found that in 13 participants with elevated blood pressure or stage 1 hypertension (120-139/80-89 mmHg), systolic blood pressure was about 10 points lower after supplementation. A drop of that magnitude could translate to a 25 percent reduction in heart attack risk.“If this magnitude of systolic blood pressure reduction with NR supplementation is confirmed in a larger clinical trial, such an effect could have broad biomedical implications,” the authors note.

Ultimately, the authors say, such CR-mimicking compounds could provide an additional option–alongside the dietary changes and exercise currently recommended–for people whose blood pressure is not yet high enough to warrant medication but who are still at risk for a heart attack.

“We are not able to make any definitive claims that this compound is safe or going to be effective for specific segments of the population,” said Dr Martens, now an Assistant Professor at the University of Delaware. “What this paper provides us with is a really good stepping stone for future work.”

Dr Martens and Dr Seal have applied for a grant to conduct a larger clinical trial looking specifically at the impact of NR supplementation on blood pressure and arterial health. Dr Martens is also launching a separate trial looking at the impact NR has on older adults with mild cognitive impairment, a precursor to Alzheimer’s disease.

Nefiracetam (chemical name N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide) is one of the more modern racetams and is purported to have much wider effects on brain activities than the first generation of racetams, and is considerably more potent. Unlike piracetam, it is fat soluble.Nefiracetam powder

Due to its wide ranging uses, nefiracetamis considered to be a second generation racetam. Due to its far ranging effects and possible uses, like pramiracetam it has become a popular supplement for sufferers of Alzheimer's disease and dementia.

The technical term for smart drugs is nootropics, which are a group of health supplements which are purported to increase cognitive ability, intelligence, memory, and general brain function.

As an analogue to piracetam, it is considered that nefiracetam is virtually non-toxic, non addictive, has very few side effects, and enhances verbal memory. Nonetheless, unlike piracetam there have been fewer clinical trials and research into the affects of nefiracetam, however it is widely considered to be considerably more potent than piracetam, and users of nefiracetam generally report that it improves memory, alertness, and cognitive function.

Several studies have shown that unlike the first generation of racetams (piracetam, oxiracetam, and aniracetam), nefiracetam also has a positive effect on mood, and acts as an antidepressent. It also stimulates the AMPA receptors in the brain. Substances which affect the brains AMPA receptors are known as Ampakines, and these substances have been shown to greatly increase attention span, learning ability, altertness, and general cognitive functions.

As with all of our racetams, nefiracetam is very popular among students, sufferers of Alzheimer's and dementia, those recovering from alcoholism, and life extension enthusiasts.

As with most all racetams, nefiracetam should be taken with a choline source such as choline bitartrate. It is also often ‘stacked’ with other racetams as well as with supplements such as GABA, and L-Tyrosine, and L-Phenylananine.

9-Me-BC powder is a methylated derivative of β-carboline with the molecular formula C12H10N2. It may be prepared by preforming the Eschweiler–Clarke reaction on freebase β-carboline (norharmane).beta carboline powder

In vitro studies with dopaminergic neuron cell cultures demonstrated increased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and associated transcription factors, increased neurite outgrowth, regeneration of neurons after chronic rotenone administration, and reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines. In studies of primary mesencephalic dopaminergic neuron cell cultures, the substance increased the number of differentiated dopaminergic neurons and produced higher levels of transcription factors associated with dopaminergic differentiation.[2] 9-Me-BC also inhibited the oxidation of the neurotoxin precursor MPTP to the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPP+ in vitro.

Rodent studies in vivo demonstrated elevated hippocampal dopamine levels, improved spatial learning performance in a radial maze test, and increased dendrite outgrowth in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, as well as restoration of the number of tyrosine hydroxylase expressing neurons in the left striatum after an injection of MPP+ had reduced the number of such cells by 50% in an animal model of Parkinsonism.
β-Carbolines (BCs) belong to the heterogenous family of carbolines, which have been found exogenously, that is, in various fruits, meats, tobacco smoke, alcohol and coffee, but also endogenously, that is, blood, brain and CSF. These exogenous and endogenous BCs and some of their metabolites can exert neurotoxic effects, however, an unexpected stimulatory effect of 9-methyl-β-carboline (9-me-BC) on dopaminergic neurons in primary mesencephalic cultures was recently discovered. The aim of the present study was to extend our knowledge on the stimulatory effects of 9-me-BC and to test the hypothesis that 9-me-BC may act as a cognitive enhancer. We found that 10 days (but not 5 days) of pharmacological treatment with 9-me-BC (i) improves spatial learning in the radial maze, (ii) elevates dopamine levels in the hippocampal formation, and (iii) results after 10 days of treatment in elongated, more complex dendritic trees and higher spine numbers on granule neurons in the dentate gyrus of 9-me-BC-treated rats. Our results demonstrate that beyond its neuroprotective/neurorestorative and anti-inflammatory effects, 9-me-BC acts as a cognitive enhancer in a hippocampus-dependent task, and that the behavioral effects may be associated with a stimulatory impact on hippocampal dopamine levels and dendritic and synaptic proliferation.

We all at one point find ourselves working through the night shift, beating strict deadlines, or even burning the midnight oil for the sake of a test. So, what is the first thing that comes to your mind when thinking about any of these tasks? I bet you thought about a cup of hot concentrated coffee or some energizing drink.Well, nootropics are not your typical cup of caffeine. They do more than stimulating your brain, stirring up insomnia, and causing annoying jitters.oxiracetam buy

A single dose is enough to increase your intellect, power up your cranial capacity, and improve your learning ability. This fact seems too good to be true, right? Hold your horses because there are several successful clinical trials to it back up. After all, medical doctors discovered the potency of racetams and gave it a go when managing patients with dementia, ADHD, and Alzheimer’s.

Are you looking to go beyond your limits? Before you swallow this limitless pill, let’s find out if the drug is worth it.Racetams are synthetic compounds belonging to the Nootropic Family. The group comprises of over 15 different chemicals. They all feature two pyrrolidone nucleus with oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen molecules.

Although they share a chemical backbone, each racetam has a parallel function. The differences in the structural orientation are responsible for the dissimilarities in potency, mechanism of action, metabolism, dosage, and half-life.

Racetams modulate the level of acetylcholine in the brain. The neurotransmitter accounts for most of the cognitive functions, including attentiveness, logical thinking, focus, concentration, and memory formation.

History

Racetam is the forerunner of all the other nootropics. However, its existence was coincidental.Dr. Corneliu Giurgea and his co-researchers were designing a molecule that could reverse abnormal sleep pattern and motion sickness.

However, by a twist of fate, these scientists discovered that the compound could also enhance focus and heighten the mental state of the user. Taking advantage of this side effect, Dr. Corneliu Giurgea and his team set out to investigate the role of racetams in cognition and brain functionalities.

Upon the successful discovery, piracetam became the godfather of the racetam family. This invention occurred in 1964. Subsequently, researchers saw the need to improve this generic smart drug and came up with superior versions, including Oxiracetam nootropics.

Oxiracetam is one of the compounds found in the Racetam family, and is one of the most well-established Nootropic compounds available. Oxiracetam has shown the ability to benefit learning ability, retention of memory, sociability, and also offers neuroprotective and neuroregenerative benefits to those suffering from dementia 1. Oxiracetam is a synthetic Nootropic that is not found naturally in nature or food and is water soluble. A typical Oxiracetam dosage ranges from 300-750mg, although there are many accounts of those taking doses greater than 1g without unpleasant side effects.oxiracetam

Benefits of Oxiracetam

Oxiracetam is thought to act on the acetylcholine and cholinergic pathways of the brain. This provides a stimulating effect that isn’t typically mood-affective like other racetams like Aniracetam. Oxiracetam is currently considered a non-food, unapproved drug by the FDA and therefore exists in a bit of a regulatory grey area. Oxiracetam has been widely investigated for its application in the reduction of dementia-related symptoms, as well as its ability to offer neuroprotective action. Results vary, but Oxiracetam is generally regarded as being able to offer much benefit to those suffering with dementia, and typically over the age of 65. Clinical data regarding Oxiracetam usage in humans is lacking to make any broad-sweeping claims as to the benefit of this compound, but several animal studies have shown highly–beneficial neuroregenerative action and neuroprotective action seen with the administration of Oxiracetam 2.

Oxiracetam is regarded as offering the ability to greatly enhance the logical, decision–making capacity of the mind
Anecdotal evidence, much of which is taken from online accounts of individual user experiences, illustrates a very exciting range of potential benefits offered by Oxiracetam. Oxiracetam is regarded as offering the ability to greatly enhance the logical, decision–making capacity of the mind and many users describe a more ‘level-headed’ approach in decision making. Oxiracetam is regarded as being a memory-enhancing compound, especially with regards to long-term memory formation and the absorption of new information. Oxiracteam is also known to increase attention span, improve the speed at which one is able to process information, and generally improve the overall learning ability of the user. For these reasons, Oxiracetam is often preferred by many academic users in place of more extreme alternatives such as Adderal, Vyvanse, and Ritalin.

Oxiracetam vs Aniracetam
Oxiracetam and Aniracetam are both known to exhibit stronger overall effects than Piracetam, and are generally regarded as both being among the most popular of all Racetam Nootropics. Oxiracetam is known to be more stimulating than Aniracetam, and also less-affective towards mood and emotions. Oxiracetam is generally taken by people who have issues responding to Piracetam, or simply want more pronounced effects. The experience of Oxiracetam is often summarized as a generalized stimulation of mental energy, and is interpreted by many as having a slightly anxious ‘edge’ in some cases. Aniracetam is a fat-soluble compound and must be taken with fats, or with a meal, to be properly absorbed by the body. Oxiracetam is water soluble and can easily be administered between meals and is easily mixable in a glass of water.

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